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Red Sox’ Mike Carp on DL with Broken Foot

5 Jun

We’re always happy to see an athlete and clubhouse taking their foot and ankle injuries seriously and giving them time to heal.

red sox mike carp

The world champion Boston Red Sox announced that 1st baseman and outfielder Mike Carp is on the 15 day DL with a fractured right foot. Last week, Carp was struck by a pitch during a game against Atlanta when he fouled it off his foot. He continued to play (risky!) and post-game x-rays were negative. So he also started Friday’s and Saturday’s games.

But after Sunday’s game against Tampa Bay, Carp’s foot was still hurting, so he had further tests done. No surprise to us that a CT scan revealed a fracture. After all, the pitch from the Braves’ David Hale was flying at 83 mph BEFORE Carp fouled it off his right foot. After the scan, doctors immediately ordered Carp into a walking boot and he’ll be on the bench for 2-3 weeks, according to Red Sox manager John Farell.

It’s necessary to rest a fractured bone in the foot for at least a week. After that, a strict regimen of physical therapy is required for an athlete to get the bone back in shape. If Carp resumes playing before the bone is properly healed, the fracture can become much worse. Or due to weakness in the bone, the foot may be injured in another way, such as an ankle sprain, tendon rupture, or fracture elsewhere in the foot.

The Red Sox and every baseball club – or for that matter any sport organization – should move cautiously when allowing a team member to resume playing. What’s best for the team isn’t always what’s best for the player (see: concussion lawsuit/NFL).

If you’re an athlete and experience any tenderness or pain in your feet, ankles, or lower legs, it’s always best to have it checked by a podiatrist at PA Foot and Ankle Associates, even if your trainer has given you the green light. Podiatrists and podiatric surgeons are the only physicians trained exclusively to treat the diseases and conditions of the foot and ankle and are expert in diagnosing and treating minor injuries before they become big problems.

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Mark Trumbo’s Foot Injury: Why playing through pain is always a bad idea

25 Apr
From any podiatrist’s point of view, it was just a matter of time. Mark Trumbo of the Arizona Diamondbacks developed plantar fasciitis in spring training. Ignoring the pain, he continued to play. This week, Diamondbacks manager Kirk Gibson announced that Trumbo is on the 15 day DL with a stress fracture in his left foot – the same foot which developed the plantar fasciitis.

trumbo foot injury

In hindsight, Trumbo’s stats suggest that the pain from his plantar fasciitis was affecting his play. From Bleacher Report: Trumbo got off to a red-hot start for Arizona with five home runs in his first nine games of the new season. His play has dropped off considerably after that early surge, however. His on-base percentage has dipped to .264 and he’s only chipped in two more homers since April 6. 

Trumbo said,  “The plantar (fasciitis) at times has been pretty bad but manageable. That’s what you have to do. You’ve got to earn a living and play. This was to the point where I severely had to compensate running-wise to the point where I probably wouldn’t be much of an asset on either side.”

We disagree that Trumbo had to play through the pain. But we do agree that most likely, the compensation resulted in the stress fracture. If Trumbo and his trainers would have addressed the plantar fasciitis at its onset, he would have had to sit out 3-4 weeks while he rehabbed (depending on its severity), but he could have avoided the more severe stress fracture injury. Bleacher Report also notes that: “…the slugger had a similar issue in the opposite foot three years ago and it took more than five months to recover. Although this injury isn’t as serious, there’s no timetable for his return to the Diamondbacks lineup.” 

As we always say, NO pain is normal.

Plantar fasciitis is no joke. In its early stages, some might consider it a minor injury, but PF can quickly turn into an extremely painful, almost crippling condition. Taking that first step after getting out of bed can send shooting pain through your heel. While the pain tends to diminish as the tendon warms up, professional athletes, who place a great amount of stress on their feet, must address their plantar fasciitis early. If they continue to play, the PF will become much worse, or due to compensation, a more severe injury develops – like a stress fracture.

When you feel pain in your foot, it’s an indication that something is wrong. Address the symptoms early, and the sports injury experts at PA Foot and Ankle Associates will develop a plan to get you back in the game with minimum bench time.

 

Pain under your second toe? It could be Freiberg’s Infraction

23 Apr

Frieberg’s Infraction (aka Frieberg’s Disease) is a disorder of the metatarsal bones in the foot (the long bones between your ankle and your toes). Pain is felt in the ball of the foot due to damage to the front of the metatarsal bone. Frieberg’s Infraction can occur in any metatarsal but most frequently, the second or third metatarsals.

Freiberg's Infraction

Freiberg’s Infraction usually appears in adolescent female athletes whose 2nd toe is longer than their big toe

**Note – the word “infraction” in this case, is a combination of Infarction (obstruction of the blood supply, leading to the death of tissue) and fracture (as the infarction is usually caused by microfractures).

Typically, Freiberg’s Infraction is seen in adolescents 13-18 years of age who are very active. Females are 5 times more likely than males to have this condition.  The patient usually has a longer second metatarsal or toe than the others and may have had previous stress fractures of this bone.

When this deformity is present, the longer metatarsal takes more of the weight when walking, running, and jumping. This repeated stress on the bone and joint can result in microfractures or joint damage, interrupting blood supply to the bone and cartilage. If undiagnosed, and the lack of blood flow continues, bone cells may die (avascular necrosis). This is called Freiberg’s Infraction.

When bone tissue dies, it undergoes changes such as flattening of the joint surface, and moving the joint may cause pain and swelling. As the damage increases, the joint between the affected metatarsal and the toe degenerates. The damaged bone may fracture, leading to small, loose bone fragments in the joint area causing further pain.

Causes of Freiberg’s Infraction

  • Growth spurts during adolescence
  • Heredity
  • Trauma
  • Infection

Symptoms of Freiberg’s Infraction

  • Usually occurs only in those whose second toe (2nd metatarsal) is longer than their big toe (1st metatarsal).
  • A dull pain in the ball of the foot behind the second toe. Pain gets worse when walking, especially in high heels.
  • Ball of the foot may become swollen, callus may appear, and skin become red
  • The joint in the toe may be stiff and painful
  • The joint may make a cracking or grinding sound when moved

In many cases, no symptoms are present, and Freiberg’s is discovered during a routine foot exam

Treatment for Freiberg’s Infraction

Some patients have no symptoms (asymptomatic) and the Freiberg’s Infraction resolves without treatment. But it’s advisable to seek treatment from a podiatrist as soon as symptoms appear, because if left untreated, tremendous damage can occur to the metatarsal, requiring surgery.

Early Treatment

  • Rest
  • Ice
  • No weight bearing activities for 4-6 weeks
  • Over the counter medicine like advil or aleve to control pain and inflammation
  • Custom orthotics molded to relieve pressure on the ball of the foot
  • Wear padded and supportive athletic shoes – no high heels. Use over the counter padding in shoes if necessary
  • If swelling and pain are advanced, a cast may be applied to the foot to immobilize it for 4-6 weeks

Advanced Treatment

If the Freiberg’s Infraction fails to resolve with conservative treatments, more aggressive treatment may be necessary. This may include:

  • Removing the damaged bone
  • Bone grafting to create a new bone
  • Shortening the length of the affected metatarsal
  • Reconstructing the joint to eliminate pain and stiffness
  • Joint removal and implant

If you have pain in the ball of your foot, please make an appointment with the podiatrists at PA Foot and Ankle Associates to determine if your pain is caused by Freiberg’s Infraction or another condition.

A stress fracture in your foot can derail your season – how to prevent it

27 Mar
Baseball, football, basketball, Lacrosse, gymnastics, running, tennis – no matter what sport you play, you may experience a stress fracture in your foot or lower leg at some point. And you may not even be aware of it.
rudy owens foot stress fracture

Astros Pitcher Rudy Owens

Even Houston Astros pitcher Rudy Owens didn’t notice the stress fracture in his foot.  “When I first started feeling it, it never hurt when I pitched — only when I’d run,” Owens said. His pain worsened, and eventually he needed surgery to correct the fracture.

But stress fractures can also occur simply by switching playing surfaces from soft to hard, or when a basketball player has a big increase in playing time. Whenever an athlete is engaged in a sport where the foot strikes the ground repeatedly and repetitively, the risk of a stress fracture increases, especially when that athlete doesn’t get proper rest between games or workouts.

Stress fractures occur when muscles in the foot become fatigued. When the fatigued muscle can longer absorb additional shock, it transfers the overload of stress to the bone, which causes a tiny crack. This is the very reason that stress fractures can go undetected and untreated for long periods. You’re not aware of any physical injury – you didn’t drop an anvil on your foot – so you walk it off and keep playing.

Yet the pain worsens, because as you continue to stress the cracked bone, the crack becomes larger, often resulting in a full blown fracture. Then you’re on the sidelines for the season.

How to protect your feet from stress fractures
  • Most stress fractures appear in the weight-bearing bones of the lower legs and feet. Those most susceptible are athletes who subject their feet to repetitive actions on hard surfaces, like basketball players, tennis players, and gymnasts.
  • Proper conditioning is the best defense against stress fractures. If the muscles in your feet and ankles remain strong and flexible, they’re better able to absorb stress. Stretching the muscles in your legs, feet, and ankles pre and post-game or workout is key.
  • Set incremental goals – don’t try to do too much too soon – build up to your goal.
  • Cross training is very effective at working different muscle groups. For instance, if you’re a basketball player, when you’re not on the court, biking or strength training should be your workout, so your feet have time to recover.
  • WEAR PROPER SHOES. We can’t stress this one enough. Many athletic foot injuries can be avoided simply by wearing shoes that offer proper protection and support for your particular activity.
Symptoms of stress fractures

Constant or periodic pain or soreness with activity, which will subside when you rest. There may also be some tenderness or swelling.

Treatment of stress fractures

Rest is essential for healing. If you continue to do the same activity which caused the stress fracture, it will definitely worsen. A stress fracture will take 6-8 weeks to fully heal, which may seem like a long time in-season. However, if you injure the foot further, your healing time will increase, and chronic problems may result.

See a podiatrist as soon as you experience pain in your foot. A stress fracture treated early can have you back in the game quickly.

When resting, elevate and ice the sore foot, and use over the counter anti inflammatory medicine like aleve or advil to manage the pain.

Custom orthotics from a podiatrist’s office, which are worn in your shoes, may be very helpful in shifting weight off of the area of the fracture. This may allow you to resume playing somewhat earlier.

Basketball: How to avoid the most common foot and ankle injuries

5 Mar

It’s safe to say that no sport demands more from an athlete’s feet and ankles than Basketball. Every movement on the court starts with the player’s feet – every shot, every rebound, and every pass.

The sudden turns, side-to-side cutting, running, stopping, sudden acceleration, changes in direction, jumping, and landing, combined with the immense size of pro basketball players, creates an almost perfect storm of injury possibilities for the lower extremities. Professional athletes train constantly on and off-court, in-season and out of season, yet their bones still fracture and their tendons and ligaments tear.

Here are the most common basketball injuries to the foot and ankle:
deron williams ankle sprain

Deron Williams of the Nets suffered an ankle sprain in 2013

Ankle Sprains

An ankle sprain occurs when the foot rolls inward or outward and stretches or tears the ligaments in the ankle. In basketball, this usually occurs when the player lands improperly after a layup, or steps or lands on another player’s foot. Swelling and bruising occur, and the foot can’t bear weight. Mild ankle sprains heal relatively quickly, but a severe sprain can disable a player for 8 weeks or more.

Watch a video of Dr. Teichman from PA Foot and Ankle Associates explaining how an ankle sprain occurs.

Fractures

Fractures of the metatarsals (the long bones in your feet), the tibia (shinbone), and the navicular bone (on the top of your foot near the ankle), are what podiatrists refer to as overuse injuries. As an athlete trains, bones actually develop tiny fractures which heal quickly and strengthen the bone. However, their adjustment is slow, and when outside stress exceeds the bone’s capability to withstand it, the bone fractures. The repeated pounding of running, jumping, and landing is especially difficult on the 5th metatrasal bone on the outside of the foot, and is the bone most often fractured by basketball players.

Read more about foot fractures

Plantar fasciitis

Another overuse injury, plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, the band of tissue which connects the arch of the foot to the heel. Repeated pounding on hard surfaces – the basketball court – subjects the plantar fascia to stress, and it reacts with inflammation and pain. Treatment and rest are essential at the first sign of pain from plantar fasciitis, because if an athlete continues to play on the sore foot, the condition will only worsen.

Read more about plantar fasciitis

Achilles Tendonitis

Your achilles tendon is responsible for every step you take, and you couldn’t make that jump shot if you didn’t have one. You’re asking a lot of this tendon during the game and sometimes it can’t keep up, and becomes strained and irritated (itis).

The achilles tendon attaches your calf muscle to your heel, and when you damage it, you’ll usually feel a knife-like pain in your leg, just below the calf muscle. It maybe accompanied by swelling. If you really do a job on it and cause it to rupture, you may be able to walk, but it will be impossible to jump until it’s healed. An evaluation from a podiatrist is absolutely essential to speed its healing.

Read more about achilles tendonitis ​

For any of these injuries, the sooner that RICE begins, the less secondary damage you’ll incur. (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). Do not continue to play or the injury may become much worse. Have your injury examined by a podiatrist as soon as possible.

How to avoid basketball injuries

Proper athletic conditioning

Strong and flexible ankles reduce the occurrence of injuries, improve performance on court, and decrease the time lost to an injury. Weekend athletes in pick-up basketball games are most frequently injured due to their lack of conditioning and weight training. That Michael Jordan-style layup looks beautiful, but hurts like mad coming down, especially if you land on another player’s foot.

Cold muscles are more prone to injury, so stretch and warm up before games with a light run, walking, biking, or calisthenics like jumping jacks and basic stretches. Stretch your muscles after the game also. If you’re out of shape, ease into it and don’t try to play like you did when you weighed 25 pounds less.

Wear new basketball shoes

They’re called basketball shoes for a good reason – they’re designed to support and accommodate the foot for the unique stresses of the game. If you play every weekend, your shoes should be updated every two months, as the padding and support wears out quickly. If you’re in high school or college, and working out almost every day, you should replace your shoes every month during the season.

The padding and stability a good pair of basketball shoes offer is your best defense against injury. Once your foot begins to rock or slide, even a little inside your shoes, your chance of injury goes up exponentially. As you accumulate playing hours on the shoe, the synthetic uppers slowly begin to fatigue and stretch in response to your starting and stopping motion. Slowly, the foot gains more and more rotational movement within the shoe, which in turn offers less and less protection to the foot.

Wear custom orthotics if you had a previous injury

Hands down, the best way to avoid re-injuring your foot or to provide additional arch support is to have custom orthotics made by a podiatrist. Proper balance, support, and foot/leg alignment are not only necessary for you to consistently play at your best level, but for your protection as well. In fact, the use of custom orthotics in the NBA has increased from about 40% in 1990 to more than 80% today.

Sochi Olympics: Poland’s Justyna Kowalczyk Wins Gold Despite Broken Foot

20 Feb

Many of us have broken a toe or a bone in our foot, so you know how painful it can be. Imagine the punishment an Olympic cross-country skier gives that broken bone, in her push to a Gold medal. Justyna Kowalczyk of Poland is another great example of the determination required to win olympic gold.

justyna kowalczyk

Justyna Kowalczyk after winning the Olympic Cross-Country Ladies Classic

Last Thursday was another unseasonably warm day in Sochi, where the temperature had climbed to 12 degrees (C), which here in America we know as 54 degrees. As the Cross-Country Ladies Classic began, the snow had turned to mush, and the American team shed their sleeves so they wouldn’t overheat. Not the easiest conditions for a “winter” 10K competition which demanded a long climb up a steep hill baking in the sun.

At the start of the race, Poland’s Justyna Kowalczyk pushed off fast and by the halfway point was in the lead by 9.1 seconds. By race’s end, the difference between gold and silver was the equivalent of a light year: 18.4 seconds, and Kowalczyk had her second gold medal (she won the 30K classical-style race in Vancouver four years ago).

Kowalczyk’s win is all the more impressive, considering she broke the 5th metatarsal bone in her left foot while training two weeks earlier (that’s the long bone in your foot that stops just before the small toe). She legitimately could have withdrawn from the competition, but she remained determined to win. Here’s the photo of her x-ray she posted on her facebook page (the bone is clearly out of place):

kowalczyk broken foot xray facebook

Kowalczyk, 31, is a four-time World Cup winner, and this event was her best chance at gold. No way she was going to sit it out. So her trainer taped her foot before the competition and injected it with an approved painkiller which would last 3 hours (I would have hated to have been her when it wore off!). As her rivals tired in the heat, Kowalczyk showed exactly why this is her signature event, powering forward to finish in 28 minutes, 17.8 seconds. Silver medalist Charlotte Kalla of Sweden was a distant 18 seconds back, and Therese Johaug of Norway took bronze, 28.3 seconds behind.

“I felt an ache in my foot, but I overcame it,” Kowalczyk told reporters after her win. “We knew what we were here for. It was unlucky that it happened to me. Everything was going wrong, but I am not one of these people who give up.”

We understand the determination of a dedicated athlete. But we would never advocate that any non-competitor ski or do much of anything with a broken foot. The possibility of further injury and aggravation to the foot jumps exponentially when you subject it to additional stress. Just getting your ski boot on over the fractured bone would be excruciating.

Justyna Kowalczyk broken foot

A picture of her broken left foot Kowalczyk posted to her facebook page. Note the discoloration and the swelling.

Normally, a metatarsal fracture like Kowalcyk’s requires anywhere from 6-12 weeks to heal, depending on its severity. During that time, the foot would be immobilized with a walking boot or a fiberglass cast. After the cast is removed, another 4-8 weeks of physical therapy would be required to get the foot back into condition. For any athlete, prompt and complete medical care of the break can be the difference between getting back to your competition quickly, or perhaps being troubled by that injury for the rest of your life.

We hold up Justyna’s stellar performance as proof that an athletic injury properly cared for, doesn’t mean the end of your athletic career or even your current competition. Way to go.

Symptoms and Treatment of Frostbite of Toes and Feet

30 Jan
It can happen easier than you can imagine. You head outside on a cold winter day with the kids to do some sledding. It’s 20 degrees (not unusual this winter here in Pennsylvania). You throw on a pair of white athletic socks and an old pair of snow boots. They’re thin, but they’ll be okay.
foot, frostbite

Toes, 2 days after frostbite

After only one hour you notice that you can’t, at least you think you can’t, feel your toes on your right foot. Not like they’re no longer attached to your foot, they are – it’s just that you have no sensation of them being there. Hmm… Weird. Never felt that before. You stomp your feet to warm them up a bit, get the circulation going again, you walk around to keep the muscles flexing. But the numbness gets worse. And they itch like mad. But back on the sled you go, because you’re having fun.

After another hour, you get home and take off your shoes and socks. The skin on your feet and toes feels like ice when you touch it. But your toes don’t register as being touched. That is, you see your fingers touching your toes, and your fingers feel like they’re touching something icy, but that’s it. No feeling of being touched from the opposite direction.

After 15 minutes, as the skin begins to warm, the throbbing begins. It gets more intense until it becomes excruciatingly painful. The throb is like someone hammering on your toes. You wrap your feet in a wool blanket, and after two hours, the pain and throbbing subside.

Those symptoms are consistent with a condition called frostnip, in which blood retreats from the tissues, but no significant long-term tissue damage occurs. Yet there’s a very, very thin line between frostnip and frostbite, in which toes and feet become so damaged, they sometimes have to be amputated.

How frostbite occurs

When the temperature drops below freezing, the body’s natural response is to move the blood vessels away from the skin to preserve core body temperature. When your feet or toes are exposed to these conditions for hours or days, blood flow becomes very restricted in the exposed areas and the tissue begins to die.

There are four degrees of frostbite:

First degree

This is frostnip, as described above. Frostnip only affects the skin, which becomes frozen. It begins with itching and pain, and the skin develops patches of yellow, white, or red, and eventually becomes numb. Long-term damage is minor, and may include insensitivity to heat and cold.

Second degree

A little more serious, the skin becomes frozen and hard, but the deep tissue remains normal. Within two days, the injured area usually forms blisters which appear hard and black. Healing takes about one month, but insensitivity to heat and cold is usually permanent.

Third and Fourth Degree

This is when the deep tissue also becomes affected by freezing temperatures. Muscles, tendons, and blood vessels freeze. The skin becomes hard and waxy and the toes or foot become difficult or impossible to move. Black or purple blisters form, which are filled with blood, accompanied by a loss of sensation, which is sometimes permanent. In some cases, the frostbitten areas become gangrenous, which requires amputation to stop the infection from spreading throughout the body.

toes, 1rostbite

Toes, 12 days after frostbite

How to treat a frostnip or frostbtten toe or foot

If you believe you have frostbite or frostnip, never rub the area to restore circulation, because you’ll damage it further. The tissue is frozen and full of ice crystals, and these crystals can cause significantly more damage. Your toes or feet will feel intensely cold, like blocks of ice,  but don’t rub them. If you’re indoors and the room is warm, take off your shoes and socks, and let your feet and toes warm naturally.

If you’re not in a warm area, wrap the foot in a blanket or something else that will trap as much natural body heat as possible to help warm the foot. However, if there’s a chance that the foot may freeze again, do not rewarm it. Do not walk on the injured foot, as it may cause further damage.

In a hospital environment, active rewarming is usually employed. This involves applying heat to the area in a controlled way to thaw the tissue faster. The faster the tissue regains blood flow, the less permanent or long-term damage will occur. Active rewarming is usually achieved by soaking the damaged foot in a warm water bath of roughly 100 degrees (F). If you’re not in a hospital setting, it’s okay to use the warm water bath yourself, but make sure that the temperature is not over 100 degrees or you may scald your foot. Never use a heat source such as a heating pad, stove, or cooking fire.

Long term consequences of frostbite may include permanent changes in sensation, a feeling of tickling or tingling in the damaged area for no apparent reason, increased sweating, and arthritis in the affected area.

If you’ve suffered frostbite of your feet or toes, please seek medical attention from a podiatrist immediately – it’s not to be taken lightly.

Toes, frostbite

Toes, 3 weeks after frostbite

Sochi Winter Olympics: Kelly Gunther’s amazing return after devastating ankle injury

29 Jan
While skating in Olympic trials in 2010, the unthinkable happened to Kelly Gunther. She was looking more and more like a potential Olympic medalist – she’d been skating since the age of six, had won several relay gold medals as a member of the Junior World Championship squad for inline skating, and had narrowly missed a spot on the 2010 U.S. Olympic team for Long Track Speedskating.

kelly gunther sochi olympics speed skating ankle injury

In March of 2010, during a 500-meter race at the American Cup series in Utah, Gunther suddenly, unexpectedly fell. She lost control when one foot tangled with the other, and she slid toward the barrier blades first.  One skate stuck in the wall, and the other came down on her boot, slicing the bone just below her left ankle. She had a double compound fracture and the skin on her ankle was lacerated, exposing bone, tendon, muscle, everything. And she was losing lots of blood. “My foot was hanging off my leg,” she said, and later remarked that if the paramedics hadn’t had the training and good sense to cut her skate from her foot, it would have probably come off in the boot. “I knew my ankle was broken, but I had no idea it wasn’t attached to my leg.”

Yet – and you may find this hard to believe –  Gunther skated two personal best times a year later, made the World Cup Team for 2011-2012, and placed third in the 1000 meters at the 2011-2012 National Championships. At the 2014 U.S. Olympic Trials, she skated her best-ever time in the 1000 meters to place fourth, winning her a spot on the U.S. Olympic Long Track Speedskating Team headed for Sochi. They don’t call her the comeback kid for nothing.  “I’ve definitely come through a lot”, she says, “and it just shows right there that you can never give up. You have to keep fighting for what you want.”

How did she come back?

While she was still on the ice, paramedics started an IV, and doctors worked furiously to save her foot. Later, surgeons inserted 10 screws and a metal plate into Gunther’s foot and ankle to keep the broken bones together. She spent four months in a cast, and two months in a walking boot. Twice each day she underwent intensive rehabilitation at the U.S. Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, performing exercises like picking up marbles with her toes and then thrusting her foot into a bucket of ice to wriggle the cramps out. All the while her doctors feared that the bone which had been shorn off by the blade might die, and Kelly would lose half of her foot.

But six months later, she was back on the ice. Most thought her chances of competing again on an Olympic level were a distant dream, yet Gunther’s on her way to Sochi.

The memory of her accident is with her every day, a not-so-gentle reminder of how easily dreams can be dashed. Before each event, Kelly has to have her leg worked on for 15-20 minutes – stretching and massage – so she can get her ankle into her clap skate. “It’s a reminder every day of how bad it was,” she says. “To keep fighting and how strong [the leg] is now, it’s almost stronger now than before I had fallen.”

What a remarkable story of determination. Kelly Gunther joins her fellow athletes on the Women’s Olympic Longtrack Speedskating Team: Brittany Bowe, Lauren Cholewinski, Maria Lamb, Heather Richardson, Anna Ringsred, Jilleanne Rookard, and Sugar Todd.

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